Moody's Grey List

Ethiopia’s financial reputation took a hit in 2001 when the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) greylisted the country for deficiencies in its Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and Counter-Terrorist Financing (CFT) measures. 

This classification had severe consequences, discouraging foreign investment and hindering international trade. The greylisting stemmed from several shortcomings in Ethiopia’s financial system.

Firstly, Ethiopia lacked a comprehensive legal framework to tackle money laundering and terrorist financing. There were no clear laws outlining criminal activity or establishing procedures for financial institutions. 

This created a gap that criminals could exploit to launder money or finance illicit activities. Secondly, financial institutions, like banks, fell short in their customer due diligence practices.

Without proper verification procedures, criminals could easily integrate dirty money into the financial system. Lastly, Ethiopia struggled with limited resources dedicated to AML/CFT efforts. 

A lack of manpower and expertise hampered their ability to identify and address suspicious financial activities.

The negative impact of the greylisting was undeniable. Foreign investors grew wary, and hesitant to put their money in a country perceived as risky.

International banks also increased scrutiny of Ethiopian transactions, making it more difficult and expensive for Ethiopian businesses to conduct international trade. Beyond the economic strain, Ethiopia’s reputation as a reliable financial partner was tarnished.

Faced with these challenges, Ethiopia embarked on a determined effort to strengthen its AML/CFT regime. The government took several significant steps to address the identified weaknesses.

A cornerstone of this effort was the enactment of a new Anti-Money Laundering Proclamation in 2004. This legislation criminalized money laundering and established a legal framework for AML/CFT activities. 

Recognizing the importance of information sharing and swift action, the government established a Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU). 

This specialized unit collected, analyzed, and disseminated financial information related to suspicious activities, providing valuable insights for investigations.

Ethiopia also understood the need for collaboration between different government agencies. Improved inter-agency cooperation between law enforcement, regulatory bodies, and the FIU ensured a more coordinated approach to combating financial crime.

Finally, the government invested in building capacity. Training and educational programs equipped financial institutions and law enforcement personnel with the knowledge and skills necessary to effectively implement AML/CFT measures.

Ethiopia’s commitment to reform did not go unnoticed. In 2007, FATF acknowledged the country’s progress and removed it from the greylist.


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This positive development marked a turning point for Ethiopia’s financial system. The strengthened AML/CFT regime not only enhanced Ethiopia’s financial security but also bolstered its reputation as a responsible player in the global financial landscape.

The Ethiopian case study offers valuable lessons for other countries facing similar challenges. A robust AML/CFT framework is essential for a healthy financial system, fostering trust with international partners and creating a more secure environment for economic growth.

The Central Bank of Kenya (CBK), led by the CBK governor, plays a vital role in regulating the financial sector in Kenya. 

One of its key functions is ensuring responsible lending practices. This includes overseeing mobile loan apps. In 2023, the CBK published a list of approved loan apps in Kenya by CBK on their website, 

This list helps protect borrowers from unregulated lenders. The CBK is headquartered at CBK Pension Towers in Nairobi, and for those interested in a career in finance, you can explore opportunities through the CBK internship portal login available on their website as well. 

By ensuring a healthy financial landscape, the CBK contributes to a more stable Kenyan economy.

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